Alulu beer receipt

Alulu beer receipt – This records a purchase of “best” beer from a brewer, c. 2050 BC from the Sumerian city of Umma in Ancient Iraq.  The tablet acknowledges receipt of 5 Silas of “the best beer” from Alulu the brewer. 5 silas = 4.5 liters. 

The tablet is an analog of invoice of our days. It has an item, quantity and the name of the seller mentioned. I could not find information if the recipient is also there.

Back then in 2050 BC the same as now beer quality was very important.

This tablet tells us that beer making became a profession and that beer making was industrialised.

The important aspect of this finding is the name of the person who is mention on the tablet – “Alulu”. Is this by accident similar to “Ale” in English, “Alus” in Lithuanian and Latvian, “olut” in Finnish, “öl” Swedish, “øl” Norwegian etc.

The other question is this a name or profession?

Horse Symbolism: introduction

Horse is one of the oldest symbols. And its visual symbolism starts with cave paintings what are 35000 years old. Horse importance to human civilization was huge for tens of thousands of years. First it was a pray. Later it was domesticated. And was the most important mans helper until industrial age. It was next to our ancestors through peace times and wars. And together with the dog a horse is the best friend of a man.

Chauvet horses cave painting


Horse was associated with sun and moon, water and fire. In indoeuropean culture horse was the one who was leading soles in underworld. A raider on a white horse going from east to west is a very common symbol in Europe. It is a sole racing from sunrise side to sundown side from the east side (kingdom of living) of the Nile to the west side of the Nile (Pyramids and kingdom of the dead).  Horse appears in Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Baltic, Catholic and other religions and mythologies.

More information will follow.